category: Civil Rights

The Paramount Theater

Paramount Theater in Marshall, TX

photo © Julia Wertz

Abandoned buildings are a minor obsession of mine, one of those obsessions I wish I had more time to follow. Until I have more time to take photos of my own, I’ll continue to keep an eye on Julia Wertz’s excellent Fourth Floor blog. The most recent feature is the beautiful Paramount Theatre in Marshall, Texas. The theater has a deep history, especially as it relates to the civil rights era. I was surprised to see this particular theater’s importance to Dr. James Farmer (who, as I’ve mentioned, was one of my college professors). According to the blog:

The theater played an influential role in the founding of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1942. James Farmer, co-founder of CORE and patron of the Paramount, cited the theater’s “offending side entrance” as one of the motivations for the movement.

Beyond the theater, the town of Marshall was “the epicenter of [the Civil Rights Movement] in Texas.” On March 26th 1960, thirteen black college students conducted a sit-in at the whites only lunch counter at Woolworth’s. They were told the counter was closed, and repeated attempts of more sit-ins garnered the same bullshit response.

It’s a shame that the theater has fallen into such disrepair given its historical significance.

Read the post and view the full Flickr set.

The White Panthers

While a group dubbed “The White Panther Party” invokes initial thoughts of a far-right white power answer to the Black Panthers, they were actually exactly the opposite:

The White Panther Party (WPP) of Detroit and Ann Arbor, Michigan was a radical counterculture group which became a major target for the FBI’s counter-intelligence (or “COINTELPRO”) program between 1968 and 1971. In October of 1970, the FBI referred to the White Panthers as “potentially the largest and most dangerous of revolutionary organizations in the United States.” However, just three years earlier, the group’s leaders hosted a “Love-In” on Detroit’s Belle Isle, presided over by John Sinclair, whom the Detroit News proclaimed “High Priest of the Detroit hippies.”

The formation and name of the group came from an interview given by Black Panther leader at the time, Huey Newton. Newton was asked what white people could do to support the Black Panther Party; he replied that they could start a White Panther Party.

In a later interview, Newton clarified:

MOVEMENT: Your comments about the white prisoners seemed encouraging. Do you see the possibility of organizing a white Panther Party in opposition to the establishment possibly among poor and working whites?

HUEY: Well as I put it before Black Power is people’s power and as far as organizing white people we give white people the privilege of having a mind and we want them to get a body. They can organize themselves. We can tell them what they should do, what their responsibility is if they’re going to claim to be white revolutionaries or white mother country radicals, and that is to arm themselves and support the colonies around the world in their just struggle against imperialism. But anything more than that they will have to do on their own.

The group existed from 1968 through 1975 and spawned rock band MC5. The Panthers lived at 1510 and 1520 Hill St. in Ann Arbor. Their biggest moment came 40 years ago, on December 10th, when they staged a concert/rally that drew 15,000 attendees in support of their jailed leader. Speakers included Allen Ginsberg and Bobby Seale and performers included John and Yoko Ono, Archie Shepp and Roswell Rudd, Stevie Wonder, protest singer Phil Ochs, and of course, MC5. YouTube has 70+ minutes of video from the concert, available in two parts.

This weekend, there’s a reunion.

Further reading on the White Panthers and their role in the movement: